SANBI Biodiversity Series


SANBI Biodiversity Series publishes occasional reports on projects, technologies, workshops, symposia and other activities initiated by or executed in

partnership with SANBI; including guidelines, user manuals, field guides, workshop outputs and proceedings, State of the Environment reports, and management plans focusing on

biodiversity, conservation and the environment of southern Africa. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed before publication when the subject matter allows. Publishing depends on

manuscripts’ availability and submissions. Published by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI).


Compiler: C. Willis
Publication date: 2015

South Africa’s national botanical gardens, with the support of government, non-governmental organisations, corporates and civil society over the past 20 years (1994–2014), have, and will continue, to serve as urban-based windows into South Africa’s biodiversity. As nature-based tourism destinations, South Africa’s national botanical gardens have supported local communities and provided education, recreational, research and work opportunities to thousands of South Africans and international visitors. Soft cover, A4, pp. 78.

ISBN 978-1-928224-07-5
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Authors: J.E. Victor, G.F. Smith & A.E. van Wyk
Publication date: 2014

This document addresses primarily the plant taxonomic research in South Africa, but includes discussions on herbarium collections and associated data, capacity for conducting research, and implementation of the strategy. During the development of this Strategy, the authors consulted taxonomists from most universities of South Africa, as well as abroad (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Missouri Botanical Garden, and University of Zurich), to share, and where appropriate, incorporate views beneficial to strategy development and implementation in South Africa. The vision of the strategy is to document and provide predictive classifications for South African plant species, enabling users to identify and access knowledge about them, so that all can understand, conserve and benefit from biodiversity. Soft cover. A5. pp. iii + 39.

ISBN 978-1-928224-09-9
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Authors: M.S. Mothogoane, R.R. Klopper, C.N. Cupido, E. Josias, M.A. Mothapo, A.M. Ngwenya, N. Phaliso, J.A. Ready, M.S. Serumula, Y. Singh & E. Van Wyk
Publication date: 2015

There exists a need to promote the value of natural science collections, and to have a strategic approach to their expansion, use and application. This requires reflection on the past to understand how the collections were established and how they have been used, a critical assessment of the current situation and planning for the future. This booklet celebrates the achievements over the past ten years, recognising the historical aspects of SANBI’s collections. Looking ahead, the importance of research, herbarium services and herbarium specimen collections as a source of information is highlighted.

ISBN 978-1-928224-01-3
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Authors: S.K. Gess & F.W. Gess
Publication date: 2014

In order to maintain essential populations of organisms, be they plant or animal, it is necessary to have an understanding of their requirements. In this

work, the authors have compiled all that is known for southern Africa of the biology of wasps and bees, important pollinators and predators, and have shown how agricultural land

use and coastal development impact on the diversity of wasps and bees. The principal focus is the semi-arid to arid areas – the authors’ main study areas over the past 40 years.

The work is intended for all who are interested in natural history, conservation and farming, and as a starting point for further observations and research. Soft-cover. 297 ×

210 mm. pp. 320.

ISBN 978-1-919976-73-0
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Authors: J.E. Victor, M. Hamer & G.F. Smith
Publication date: 2013

Research in the fields of taxonomy and biosystematics is fundamental to all other biodiversity research, including conservation biology, agriculture and

sustainable use. Following wide consultation, this Strategy for Biosystematics Research in South Africa, the first comprehensive one covering all the major biota occurring in

the country, was produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute. The Strategy provides clear guidelines to taxonomic researchers and funding agencies regarding

where research effort and resources should be focussed over the 2013–2018 period to produce maximum benefits to society.

ISBN 978-1-919976-90-7
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Authors: D. Ollis, K. Snaddon, N. Job & N. Mbona
Publication date: 2013

This user manual (compiled by the Freshwater Consulting Group) aims to provide user-friendly guidance for application of the classification system to inland

aquatic ecosystems of South Africa. The manual has been produced in a format that can be used in the field and is designed to appeal to a wide range of user-groups, including

both non-specialists and experts. The types of inland systems, and basis and overall structure of the classification system are clearly explained. The various spatial scales

(regional setting, landscape setting, hydrogeomorphic unit, hydrological regime and descriptors) are discussed in detail with notes on the application of the classification

system. A glossary of important terms and a series of dichotomous keys for the classification of inland systems are included to facilitate consistent classification of inland

aquatic ecosystems throughout the country. Worked examples of how to apply the classification system are also provided. Soft cover. pp. 124.

ISBN 978-1-919976-75-4
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Compilers: C.K. Willis & M.J. Samways
Publication date: 2011

After birds, butterflies and bees, dragonflies and damselflies are among the most conspicuous groups of animals observed in South Africa’s National Botanical

Gardens. They are particularly prevalent around rivers, streams, dams and other aquatic habitats. The title of this book – water dancers – is a literal translation of the Zulu

word jigamanzi that has been used to describe dragonflies, an apt description as adults swirl about water bodies engaged in their daily business. Part of the reason for

publishing this illustrated checklist is to create greater public awareness and appreciation of the importance and value of conserving dragonfly diversity as a valuable

component of our natural habitats and ecosystems, as dragonflies serve as excellent indicators of terrestrial and aquatic environmental change. Not only are dragonflies good

indicators of environmental health and ecological integrity, they also act as flagship species for other aquatic invertebrates in the biodiversity debate. This book represents

the third in a series of Sappi-sponsored illustrated checklists of biodiversity recorded in South Africa’s National Botanical Gardens. Soft cover. A5. pp. 108.

ISBN 978-1-919976-68-6
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Compilers: Cape Action for People and the Environment
Publication date: 2011

The majority of people working in the field of biodiversity conservation, whether paid or voluntarily, generally have backgrounds in the natural sciences, or

do so due to their passion for sustaining and conserving all life forms. They rarely have experience in fundraising, and with an estimated 110 000 non-profit organisations

(NPOs) in South Africa, the competition for donated money is tough, especially in times of global recession. This book follows the real flow of marketing and fundraising

processes: from the setting-up of a new biodiversity conservation organisation, project identification and potential donor research, to planning as broad an income base as

possible. This book provides a guide through the key steps in fundraising and marketing. Where practical and applicable, experiences and advice from established organisations

active in biodiversity conservation are provided. Soft cover. A4. pp. xii + 92.

ISBN 978-1-919976-67-9
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Editor: G.J. Measy
Publication date: 2011

South Africa, particularly the eastern part of the country, is home to a spectacular diversity of frogs (order Anura). However, the very survival of many

species is in danger due to various factors causing habitat loss. This book represents the outcomes of a reassessment of all threatened species – roughly a third of all South

African frogs. Strategic research priorities regarding taxonomy, conservation, monitoring and public awareness are extensively covered and guidelines for all future amphibian

studies are established. Appendix 1 provides an update of the Red List with IUCN criteria for all reassessed amphibians. The species accounts are illustrated with maps and

images and contain detailed information on every species’ geographic range, population, habitat, ecology as well as current and historical Red List status. Further information

includes notes on conservation actions currently in place and major threats to their survival. This book is a must-have for all conservationists, policy makers and amphibian or

natural history enthusiasts. Soft cover. 293 × 209 mm. pp. 84.

ISBN 978-1-919976-63-1
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Authors: S.K. Gess & F.W. Gess
Publication date: 2010

Pollen wasps are different to other wasps as, like bees, they provision their nests with pollen and nectar, rather than with hunted insects and spiders, as

other wasps do. Western southern Africa is particularly rich in pollen wasps where they are important as flower pollinators, and they have interesting and close associations

with the plants visited. This book covers world distribution, southern African distribution, morphology, taxonomy, life history (including behaviour), as well as associated

organisms of these wasps and presently recognised species. The sections on behaviour include: flower visiting, water visiting, nesting, nest provisioning, sleeping and

sheltering, and male behaviour. Details of the various 21 plant families visited are given, and there is a section on the impact of land use practices on pollen wasps. Colour

photographs of the genera, flowers and vegetation types are provided, and line drawings depict the various nest types and distribution maps. This publication will interest

entomologists, conservationists, ecologists, botanists, as well as amateurs wanting to know more about these insects. Soft cover. A4. 147 pp.

ISBN 978-1-919976-60-0
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Authors: compiled by Anton Nahman
Publication date: 2010

This synthesis report came about through a collaborative effort that started with the decision to stage a national conference on Environmental Resource

Economics in Cape Town, May 2009. After the Cape Action for People and the Environment (C.A.P.E.) Resource Economics Task Team decided to lead the process of staging the event,

partnerships were quickly formed with others keen to contribute. The objectives of this report are: 1. To review and document the progress, current status and future trends with

regard to ERE research and development in SA; 2. To collate and document the outcomes of the conference with regard to implementation, including that which focused on Payments

for Ecosystem Services and other key topics in the field; and 3. To understand the key areas within ERE that should reward future effort and investment, particularly from an

implementation perspective. Soft cover. A4. pp. iv + 22.

ISBN 978-1-919976-62-4
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Authors: compiled by Christopher Willis & Steve Woodhall
Publication date: 2010

Butterflies have formed one of the more visible, but not always noticed components of the biodiversity of South Africa’s national botanical gardens since

Kirstenbosch was established in 1913. This consolidated checklist of the butterflies found in the (then) nine botanical gardens of the South African National Botanical Institute

is a first attempt to provide a comprehensive list of butterflies known to occur in each of the national botanical gardens. Information was supplied by university students and

members of the Lepidopterists’ Society of Africa (LepSoc). English and Afrikaans common names, scientific names, wingspan, some notes of behaviour and flight period and a

photograph are provided for each butterfly presented. There is also an indication of which national botanical gardens the species has been found in. Soft cover. A 5. pp. vi +

ISBN 978-1-919976-57-0
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Authors: D.G. Herbert
Publication date: 2010

The alien terrestrial mollusc fauna of South Africa is comprehensively reviewed in this publication. A total of 34 species are considered to have been

introduced to the country, of which 28 are considered established and 13 of these invasive. The history of introduction and recording is summarised and patterns of introduction

are analysed. Each species is discussed in terms of its distinguishing features, habitat preferences, date of introduction and first record, native range and global

distribution, distribution in South Africa, pest status, and similarity with indigenous species. Further taxonomic notes and biological observations relating to behaviour,

reproduction and parasite transmission are included where relevant. In addition, some consideration is given to potentially pestiferous species, which are not yet known to occur

in South Africa, but which represent a significant future introduction risk of levelling off. Soft cover. A4. pp. 108.

ISBN 978-1-919976- 56-3
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Authors: G.A. Henning, R.F. Terblanche & J.B. Ball (eds)
Publication date: 2009

This publication, produced in cooperation with the Lepidopterists’ Society of Africa, fulfils the need for a revised South African Red Data Book for

butterflies as well as for an improved proposed Red List of butterflies in South Africa. It highlights the presence of threatened species, provides a rationale for the listing

of such taxa, and then identifies the actual threats facing these butterfly species. A review of the ecology of each species, if known, is given, enabling appropriate

conservation action to be directed towards these threats. Research priorities that promote conservation management strategies for the species are also identified. A most useful

tool for students, workers, managers, and decision-makers in conservation-related fields. Soft cover. A4. pp. 158.

ISBN 978-1-919976-51-8
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Authors: G.S. Measey, P.K. Malonza & V. Muchai
Publication date: 2009

This book describes the amphibians (frogs) of the Taita Hills in southeastern Kenya. It will help demystify what amphibians are, and their importance in

conservation, as well as make readers aware of the importance of their environment, especially the indigenous forest upon which they depend. Included in the book is information

on the biodiversity and the climate (temperature and rainfall) of the area. Each species account has a graph depicting the different months of the year that the frogs call, eggs

and tadpoles hatch, and the adult phase. It also shows where to find them, their size (compared to a human hand), and has a coloured photograph of the species. The book is in

two languages (English one half, and Swahili the other half). Soft cover. A5. pp. 75.

ISBN 978-1-919976-49-5
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Compilers: Cape Action for People and the Environment
Publication date: 2008

This is the second in a series of project management handbooks, and deals with monitoring and evaluation (M&E). It is aimed at people working in the

biodiversity conservation sector and focuses on a particular set of activities integral to the process of project implementation. These are the activities that make up project

monitoring and evaluation, and what is associated with it: clear objectives, a particular form of support or intervention, a set time frame, a defined target group and

beneficiaries. It aims to provide you with an overview of some of the key issues in project M&E, a guiding framework within which you can develop your M&E plans, and

tools, concepts and exercises to build your own M&E practice. Soft cover. A4. pp. 126.

ISBN 978-1-919976-47-1
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Authors: L. Atkinson & K. Sink
Publication date: 2008

This document was commissioned by the Offshore Marine Protected Areas, South African National Biodiversity Institute, World Wildlife Fund and the Department

of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, to serve as an overview of existing information pertaining to offshore marine resource users of South Africa’s exclusive economic zone. It

outlines petroleum activities, mineral prospecting and mining, commercial fishing, shipping, dumping of waste, submarine cables, naval activities and scientific research in the

offshore zone; giving background information, history, general operation and the areas of activity. Known and potential biodiversity impacts as well as overlap and issues of

conflict between various resource users are also identified. Soft cover. A4. pp. 66.

ISBN 978-1-919976-43-3
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Authors: K. Sink & C. Attwood
Publication date: 2008

The Offshore Marine Protected Areas (OMPA) project aims to facilitate the establishment of a protected offshore area with broad support from the various

offshore sectors. It will span three years, and will develop objectives and guidelines for the establishment of these areas, collate scientific data and other information, and

identify priority areas for protection. This document specifically addresses the guidelines for the establishment of offshore protected areas, and is aimed at the government

departments using marine resources, industry stakeholders such as fishing, mining, petroleum, shipping, waste disposal and marine research, as well as the general public. Soft

cover. A4. pp. 18.

ISBN 978-1-919976-43-3
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Authors: C. Willis, O. Curtis & M. Anderson
Publication date: 2008

This publication of a bird checklist for South Africa’s National Botanical Gardens is the first in a series of SANBI publications to be produced in

collaboration with Sappi. The checklist covers birds occurring in nine of the National Botanical Gardens in South Africa, and apart from the common names of birds (old and new)

and scientific names, it includes information such as the endemic status of the birds, their movements and migration habits, and their threat status. Birds recorded in each

garden are listed in dedicated columns, with open circles that can be filled in by visitors when birds are seen in a particular garden. Colour photographs of some of the birds

are also included. Soft cover. A4 ring-bound. pp. 40.

ISBN 978-1-919976-41-9
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Authors: compiled by Cape Action for People and the Environment
Publication date: 2007

This is the first in a series of three handbooks that will form part of the C.A.P.E. Partners Toolbox and that will guide project developers and other

practitioners through the full project cycle. The C.A.P.E. handbooks are modelled on the Olive series (by Olive Publications), but are adapted for application in the C.A.P.E.

context and included relevant, actual case studies that characterise the efforts of C.A.P.E. partners in building capacity that will result in benefits to biodiversity and the

communities of the Cape Floristic Region. Soft-cover. A4. pp. vi + 73.

ISBN 978-1-919976-37-2
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Authors: C.F. Musil & I.A.W. MacDonald
Publication date: 2007

This inventory arose as an outcome of an earlier national survey sponsored by the Southern African Biodiversity Support Programme aimed at determining user

needs in the field of alien invasive species management and research. Soft cover. A4. pp 176.

ISBN 978-1-919976-35-8
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Authors: W.R. Branch, K.A. Tolley, M. Cunningham, A.M. Bauer, G. Alexander, J.A. Harrison, A.A. Turner & M.F. Bates
Publication date: 2006

The Southern African Reptile Conservation Assessment (SARCA) was launched in May 2005. Its primary aim is to produce a conservation assessment of the reptiles

of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland over a four-year period (2005–2009). It has the distinction of being the first faunal project of the newly constituted South African

National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) which, previously – as the National Botanical Institute (NBI) – was concerned only with plants. This report brings together a

comprehensive set of guidelines for a whole section of southern Africa’s biodiversity research, and should remain relevant for at least a decade. Areas under study include

priorities for systematic studies on southern African reptiles; taxonomic units relevant to conservation planning; mismatches between morphology and genetics; methods,

techniques and protocols for phylogenetic studies on southern African reptiles; and a sampling and implementation strategy for phylogenetic studies on southern African reptiles.

Soft cover. A4. pp. 48.

ISBN 1-919976-33-7
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Authors: A. Ashwell, T. Sandwith, M. Barnett, A. Parker & F. Wisani
Publication date: 2006

This publication illustrates the results achieved on the ground and the lessons learnt as a result of the Cape Action for People and the Environment

(C.A.P.E.) programme. Topics covered include: Introducing C.A.P.E.; Unleashing the potential of protected areas; Managing watershed wisely; Enabling conservation stewardship;

Building the biodiversity economy; Supporting conservation education; Strengthening institutions; Co-ordinating C.A.P.E.; and Looking ahead. Soft cover. A4. pp. 263.

ISBN 1-919976-29-9
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