SANBI Flora Keys Logo
Interactive keys to the identification of seed plants of southern Africa using keys based on plant morphology.
  • Key after Anderberg: 34 (1991); Anderberg & Bremer: 1068 (1991); Nordenstam: 407 (1996)
Backtrack a
  • Leaves denticulate, dentate, serrulate, serrate or lobed
  • Involucral bracts cartilaginous or herbaceous, without papery lamina
b
  • Leaves entire or else involucral bracts have a papery lamina
Backtrack a
  • Capitula radiate
b
  • Capitula discoid or disciform
Backtrack a
  • Receptacle paleate
b
  • Receptacle epaleate
Backtrack a
  • Pappus of barbellate bristles and crown of scales
b
  • Pappus of rigid awns
Backtrack a
  • Involucral bracts with terminal arista
  • Ray florets purple
  • Disc florets yellow
  • Pappus of 5 scale-like awns with bristle-like projection
b
  • Involucral bracts without arista
  • Ray florets creamy white or blue
  • Disc florets purplish black
  • Pappus of few rigid canaliculate awns
Backtrack a
  • Ray florets yellow or white
  • Pappus of bristles in 1 row with outer row of scales (N.B. some Printzia species may have yellow or greenish ray florets but then with pappus of bristles in many rows)
b
  • Ray florets purple
  • Pappus of bristles in several rows
Backtrack a
  • Leaves broad (more than 10 mm)
  • Anthers projecting out of corolla at early stage, preflorally
b
  • Leaves narrow (less than 10 mm)
  • Anthers projecting at later stage, postflorally
Backtrack002 a
  • Involucral bracts with shortly stalked glandular hairs
  • Cypselas hairy but without glands
  • Leaves xeromorphic, needle-like
b
  • Involucral bracts with long-stalked glandular hairs
  • Cypselas hairy and glandular
  • Leaves herbaceous
Backtrack a
  • Pappus of slender, capillary bristles and scales
  • Involucral bracts recurved
  • Capitula discoid
b
  • Pappus of bristles only or of rigid awns or of short rigid bristles and scales
  • Involucral bracts not recurved
  • Capitula discoid or disciform
Backtrack a
  • Leaf surface smooth, veins indistinct
  • Capitula large (more than 10 mm)
  • Pappus with 5-8 bristles
b
  • Leaf surface more or less rugose, veins distinct
  • Capitula small (less than 10 mm)
  • Pappus with 4 or 5 bristles
Backtrack a
  • Leaves large, deeply lobed
  • Capitula small, discoid, in large divaricate, leafy panicles
  • Corolla very deeply lobed
b
  • Leaves smaller, not lobed
  • Capitula disciform, not in divaricate panicles
  • Corolla with short lobes
Backtrack a
  • Stem and leaves villose
  • Florets yellow
  • Pappus of short rigid bristles and short scales
b
  • Stem and leaves glabrous or puberulous
  • Florets white or blue
  • Pappus of 1 plumose capillary bristle only
Backtrack a
  • Involucral bracts cartilaginous or herbaceous
  • Capitula radiate
b
  • Involucral bracts with papery lamina or else capitula disciform or discoid
Backtrack a
  • Leaves small, densely tomentose to villose on both sides
b
  • Leaves often glabrous and shiny above, not tomentose or villose on both sides
Backtrack a
  • Pappus of triquetrous awns
  • Ray florets creamy white or blue
  • Disc florets purplish black
b
  • Pappus of capillary bristles
  • Florets not as above
Backtrack a
  • Pappus bristles in several rows
  • Ray florets not yellow (Athrixia and Lepidostephium, but see also Macowania pinifolia)
b
  • Pappus of bristles in 1 row or 0
  • Ray florets yellow or white
Backtrack a
  • Leaves very long and slender, acicular
  • Pappus 0
b
  • Leaves not very slender, short to moderately long, not acicular
  • Pappus of barbellate bristles
Backtrack a
  • Leaves flat, very pungent
  • Corolla with long woolly hairs
  • Pappus bristles caducous
b
  • Leaves revolute, pungent or not
  • Corolla without woolly hairs
  • Pappus bristles persistent
Backtrack a
  • Capitula radiate
b
  • Capitula disciform or discoid
Backtrack a
  • Ray florets yellow
b
  • Ray florets purple, pink or white
Backtrack a
  • Plants compact, cushion-forming
b
  • Plants not cushion-forming
Backtrack a
  • Pappus of capillary bristles, scales 0
b
  • Pappus at least in ray florets with conspicuous scales, bristles present or 0
Backtrack a
  • Pappus bristles distinctly plumose
b
  • Pappus bristles scabrid-barbellate or 0
Backtrack a
  • Annual or biennial herbs
b
  • Perennial subshrubs, shrublets or shrubs
Backtrack a
  • Cypselas densely hairy with long, apically coiled hairs
b
  • Cypselas almost glabrous
Backtrack a
  • Disc florets with 1-4 pappus bristles
b
  • Disc florets without pappus bristles
Backtrack a
  • Plants glabrous (if hairy then with capitula congested in secondary heads)
  • Capitula generally cymose-corymbose to clustered in secondary heads (if solitary then with glabrous, ± distinctly 1-nerved leaves)
b
  • Plants ± hairy or glandular-hairy (if glabrous then with distinctly 3-9-nerved leaves)
  • Capitula generally solitary (if corymbose then with hairy leaves)
Backtrack a
  • Leaves with long, glandular hairs
b
  • Leaves without long, glandular hairs
Backtrack a
  • Plants compact, moss-like
  • Disc florets wine-red
b
  • Plants not moss-like
  • Disc florets yellow, pink or white
Backtrack a
  • Pappus of 5 broad scale-like awns with bristle-like projection
  • Involucral bracts with long terminal arista
b
  • Pappus of plumose capillary bristles
Backtrack a
  • Capitula few-flowered, in dense globose clusters
b
  • Capitula with more florets, well separated in loose clusters
Backtrack a
  • Involucral bracts entirely cartilaginous or herbaceous or sometimes with minute papery apical portion
b
  • Involucral bracts conspicuously papery
Backtrack a
  • Capitula 1-flowered
b
  • Capitula with 2 or more florets
Backtrack a
  • Capitula arranged in spikes or in dense glomerules
b
  • Capitula solitary, neither arranged in spikes nor in dense glomerules
Backtrack a
  • Capitula small
  • Pappus of plumose bristles
b
  • Capitula larger
  • Pappus of barbellate bristles
Backtrack a
  • Florets purple, at least apically or basally
b
  • Florets yellow
Backtrack a
  • Leaves adaxially concave, often tomentose adaxially only
b
  • Leaves flat or revolute, not tomentose adaxially only
Backtrack a
  • Leaves twisted or straight
  • Capitula discoid
  • Pappus barbellate
b
  • Leaves straight
  • Capitula disciform or sometimes discoid but then pappus plumose
Backtrack a
  • Capitula large, more or less campanulate, rather few
b
  • Capitula small, narrowly cylindrical, many
Backtrack a
  • All involucral bracts conspicuously white
  • Leaves linear, ericoid
b
  • Only innermost bracts conspicuously white
  • Leaves neither ericoid, nor linear
Backtrack a
  • Apical pappus cells white, opaque
b
  • Apical pappus cells hyaline, transparent
Backtrack a
  • Apical pappus cells clavate
b
  • Apical pappus cells acute
Backtrack a
  • Capitula large (more than 10 mm)
b
  • Capitula small (less than 10 mm)
Backtrack a
  • Cypselas villose
  • Involucral bracts pink
  • Leaves minute, extremely densely adpressed
b
  • Cypselas pilose or almost glabrous
  • Involucral bracts white, yellow, reddish or brown
  • Leaves not minute
Backtrack a
  • Leaves small, triangular, erect, adpressed, adaxially concave and tomentose, abaxially glabrous
b
  • Leaves not small and triangular, flattened, not erect, nor glabrous abaxially
Backtrack a
  • Disc florets generally bisexual
  • Pappus bristles basally with patent cilia, apical cells clavate
  • Endothecial tissue radial
b
  • Disc florets functionally male
  • Pappus bristles basally without patent cilia, apical cells not clavate
  • Endothecial tissue polarised
Backtrack a
  • Capitula discoid or disciform with female florets not outnumbering disc florets
b
  • Capitula disciform with female florets outnumbering disc florets
Backtrack a
  • Capitula discoid (or occasionally with 1 or 2 filiform female florets)
b
  • Capitula disciform (female florets frequent)
Backtrack a
  • Capitula few, on filiform peduncles
b
  • Capitula several, ± sessile, in glomerules
Backtrack a
  • Stereome divided
b
  • Stereome undivided
Backtrack a
  • Capitula few, on filiform peduncles
b
  • Capitula several, ± sessile, in glomerules
Backtrack a
  • Receptacle paleate
b
  • Receptacle epaleate
Backtrack a
  • Leaves revolute, glabrous above, decurrent
  • Cypselas with scattered, short, clavate myxogenic hairs
b
  • Leaves flat, villose above, not decurrent
  • Cypselas villose with elongated nonmyxogenic hairs
Backtrack a
  • Involucral bracts not unguiculate, outer ones without petaloid portion, inner ones with elongate petaloid portion
  • Pappus bristles with apical teeth short, subclavate, opaque
  • Disc floret style bifurcate
b
  • Inner involucral bracts unguiculate with broader petaloid portion, outer ones partly membranous, not clawed
Backtrack a
  • Leaves glabrous above (or sparsely pilose)
  • Flowering branches apically usually with reduced leaves (= corymbophore present)
  • Corolla purplish
  • Pappus reduced especially in female florets
b
  • Leaves tomentose on both sides (though sometimes glabrescent above with age)
  • Flowering branches evenly leafy to top (= corymbophore 0)
  • Corolla white or yellow
  • Pappus bristles well-developed in all florets
Backtrack a
  • Stereome divided
b
  • Stereome undivided
Backtrack a
  • Pappus bristles basally connate in groups, pappus plumose
b
  • Pappus bristles basally free or cohering by patent cilia
Backtrack a
  • Stereome conspicuously divided
  • Pappus generally distinctly plumose or else cypselas with 2-celled, globose or unicellular, clavate hairs
b
  • Stereome indistinctly divided
  • Pappus barbellate or possibly subplumose but then cypselas not as above
Backtrack a
  • Capitula few, on filiform peduncles
b
  • Capitula several, ± sessile, in glomerules
Backtrack a
  • Cypselas with globose hairs
  • Pappus basally connate
b
  • Cypselas with clavate or elongated hairs
  • Pappus free, connate or 0
Backtrack a
  • Perennial herbs with long, straggling branches
b
  • Perennial or annual herbs
  • Branches never long and straggling
Backtrack a
  • Leaves minute, densely adpressed
  • Involucral bracts white
  • Cypselas villose
b
  • Characters not as above
Backtrack a
  • Outer involucral bracts subtending single female floret
  • Pappus apically plumose
b
  • Outer involucral bracts not subtending single female floret
  • Pappus various
Backtrack a
  • Disc florets generally bisexual
  • Pappus bristles basally with patent cilia, apical cells clavate
  • Endothecial tissue radial
b
  • Disc florets functionally male
  • Pappus bristles basally without patent cilia, apical cells not clavate
  • Endothecial tissue polarised
Backtrack a
  • Capitula surrounded by involucre of lanate, radiating leaves
b
  • Capitula not surrounded by lanate, radiating leaves
Backtrack a
  • Capitula discoid
b
  • Capitula disciform
Backtrack a
  • Ovaries with relatively large and conspicuous white hairs, pappus bristles fused at base in a smooth ring, shaft usually plumose, rarely barbellate or smooth
b
  • Ovaries either without large white hairs or pappus bristles not fused at base (although they may cohere strongly by patent cilia)
Backtrack a
  • Female florets outnumbering disc florets
b
  • Female florets fewer than disc florets
Backtrack a
  • Pappus bristles apically plumose, basally connate
  • Stereome undivided
  • Cypselas with globose, myxogenic twin-hairs
b
  • Pappus bristles barbellate, basally free
  • Stereome divided
  • Cypselas never with globose twin-hairs
Backtrack a
  • Capitula with less than 20 florets
b
  • Capitula with more than 20 florets
Backtrack a
  • Capitula large, solitary or few together
  • Pappus basally connate, of many distinctly plumose bristles
  • Cypselas with globose hairs
b
  • Capitula large or small
  • Pappus barbellate or only somewhat plumose but then with few, basally free bristles and cypselas not with globose hairs
Backtrack a
  • Capitula large, solitary
  • Leaves small, triangular, adpressed, concave and adaxially tomentose
b
  • Capitula small or, if large, then leaves not as above